There are also some other ingredients that can be added to the mix. Accelerators: It accelerates the dry time of mortar. Sharp sand is more coarse than building/soft sand and is perfect for mixing with other sands to prevent cracking during the drying process. In a building construction project, there are different types of masonry works. It is usually laid in thin layers as thicker layers may crack during the drying process. We know that the tile is thin object material usually comes in the shape of square and rectangular and it is made of hard material like ceramic ,stone and used for generally covering of roof ,floors and wall. It’s preferable to use either sharp sand, plasterers sand or a mixture of two. Don’t forget; we have price guides for hundreds of home improvement projects. Compare prices for hundreds of jobs and find the average cost. This mortar is also suitable for at-grade applications like walkways and brick patios. The Most Powerful Moss Killing Chemical You Can Buy, 6 Major Home Improvements You Can Do WITHOUT Planning Permission. 1:5 ratio of mortar impart compressive strength of 5.0 N/mm2 after 28 days of cube testing. The strength can be increased upto 2.0 N/mm2 by decreasing one portion of sand. This large-and-heavy-tile mortar (formerly known as “medium-bed mortar”) is designed to bond and support large tile over a diverse range of substrates. There are four main types of mortar mix: N, O, S, and M. Each type is mixed with a different ratio of cement, lime, and sand to produce specific performance characteristics such as flexibility, bonding properties, and compressive strength. So use it when you absolutely need it. Tradespeople and builders often use different terms to describe cement, concrete and mortar, so here’s a quick guide designed to avoid confusion: Cement is a greyish coloured powder that is mixed with sand and/or other aggregates to create concrete or mortar. But I have doubts about its function. Mortar Mix Ratio For Bricklaying. White Fortified Medium Bed Mortar VersaBond-LFT Fortified Medium Bed Mortar VersaBond-LFT Fortified Medium Bed Mortar is a general purpose, economical, polymer-modified medium bed mortar for use with large format porcelain, ceramic and natural stone tile. . A Civil Engineer . The basic mix ratio for concrete is one part water, two parts cement and three parts sand. This durable and long-lasting flooring choice requires … Become informed about tradesman's prices and use our guide as a starting point. Because flaunching is laid several inches thick, add sharp sand to the mix to avoid cracking during the drying process. If thickness increases you can increase the sand quantity into the mix. It can be washed away after minimal weathering. It’s also can be used as an alternative to cement in some mixes. Plasticiser is optional. Vertical walls require a different consistency than horizontal surfaces, and you can vary the mixture as necessary for other block projects. Use it at your own risk. Although anything from 3-5 parts sharp sand to 1 part sand would be acceptable for most situations. Concrete and mortar Mix ratios vary depending on the project you are working on. For chimneys in wind swept rainy parts of the country use a mix of 3 parts soft sand and 1 part cement. Unfortunately, some profiled roof tiles require a very thick bedding of mortar, so to reduce the risk of cracking, sharp sand should be introduced to the mix for most tiles. mortar ideal for installing large-format tile on floors, walls and countertops. There are various types of sand used in construction depending on the type of masonry works. You don't want to let your mortar dry out or mix at the wrong consistency. This guide was written by Danny Woodley and was last updated in August 2019. Polymer-Enriched Thin-Set Mortar Porcelain Tile Mortar is a regular-setting, polymer-enriched (“modified”) mortar for installing a wide range of tile and stone over a diverse range of substrates in thin-set applications. The most common mortar mix ratio for wall plastering is 1:6, here 1 part is cement and 6 part is sand in a workable amount of water. By browsing our site, you agree to their use. Not only will the mortar fail to bind sufficiently, it may also crumble after a short amount of time or wash away after minimal weathering. Normally, it isn’t used in new constructions. It’s a general-purpose mix and is recommended for exterior and above-grade walls that are exposed to high heat and severe weather. The mortar mix ratio actually depends on various things. This mortar provides a medium compressive strength of 750 psi. The mortar mix ratio for tiles mostly depends on the thickness of the bedding mortar. The grains of plaster sand is not as fine as soft sand but not as coarse as sharp sand. Mortar is a mixture of fine sand particles, cement, water and sometimes lime. proportioning of cement sand in mortar provides consistency in the performance and appearance of masonry construction. Since thinset tile mortar has … This applies to any tile with any side 15 inches or longer. Colourants can be used but only use as much as you need and avoid excessive amounts. (19 mm) thick on … The strength of 1:6 ratio of mortar after 28 days is 3.0 N/mm2. Needless to say that mortar should never be so firm that it doesn’t have enough water content to create a chemical reaction. It can be used but its reliability is debatable. Color Additives: The name says it all. This guide details the difference between tile adhesive and mortar, and some tips on how to apply tile adhe But it has relatively poor adhesion and sealing properties. Mortar is not the same as cement, concrete, or grout. 2 or 3 parts soft sand 1 part sharp sand, 1 cement and half-part lime is optional. Due to its low structural capacity, it isn’t recommended to use in exterior applications. After 15 minutes, give the thinset another slow stir with the drill. For bedding under the slabs use 5 parts sharp sand, 1 part soft sand and 1 cement. This page has more detailed information about lime/sand ratios. Use 1 part cement and 4 parts sharp sand for most of the tiles work. Thinset tile mortar has a smooth, slippery consistency, similar to mud. The terms thinset cement, thinset mortar, dryset mortar, and drybond mortar are synonymous. Plasterers sand is not as coarse as sharp sand but not as fine as soft sand. Mortar is the element that bonds bricks or other masonry units together and provides structural capacity to the wall or other structure. Concrete blocks or cement blocks are different than bricks. Cement is the binding element . Depending on the types of tiles you can use anything from 3-6 parts sharp sand with 1 part cement for preparing the mortar. The mortar mix ratio for bricklaying mostly depends on the size and location of the brick wall and the type of bricks. Thinset mortar is a blend of cement, very finely graded sand, and a water retention compound that allows the cement to properly hydrate. Such as masonry foundations, retaining walls, and sewers. Covering breathable materials with non-breathable cement, gypsum plaster or waterproofing sealers can lead to significant damp problems. Explore our full list of detailed price guides here. 5 degrees is the lowest temperature that mortar can be laid. In general, we don't recommend the use of modified thin-set mortar to set tile over … Jun 15, 2017 … Unlike unmodified mortar, which consists only of a blend of Portland cement, sand, and water retention agents, modified thinset. Now please share which mortar mix ratio you use in your area for bricklaying, plaster, tiles, and pointing work. Frost proofer should not be relied upon to protect mortar from freezing conditions. … Being able to make the correct concrete mix and knowing how to mix mortar are essential skills for any ardent DIY-er. It’s a liquid. Lime allows materials such as bricks to breathe, it’s commonly used on older period buildings with soft, permeable bricks that would likely crack if cement was used. For period buildings: Lay a lime-based screed as the floor needs to breathe. Soft sand can be added to the mix but we feel it shouldn’t comprise more than 25% of the entire mix. It’s also useful for interior load-bearing walls. Cement mortar is used to attach wall tiles or floor tiles while tile adhesive is suitable for installing backsplash tiles or countertop tiles. How to Mix Mortar for Ceramic Tile. Professional, Large-and-Heavy-Tile Mortar with Polymer Large-Format Floor & Wall Tile Mortar is a polymer-enriched (“modified”) mortar ideal for installing large-format tile on floors, walls and countertops. The mortar mix ratio for most of the 5 inches thick wall in a residential building is done with, For retaining walls which may be in regular contact with water, use. Mortar coverage becomes particularly important as tile sizes get larger and longer (think wood plank tile). Waterproofer can be applied to the first coat if the property is modern. This mortar provides a very low compressive strength of only about 75 psi. The firmness of the wet mortar can be altered by changing the type of sand, the sand/cement ratio and the amount of water added to the mix. For buildings, we use the following mixes – The mortar mix ratio for most of the 5 inches thick wall in a residential building is done with 1 part cement and 4 parts soft sand mortar mix ratio. Strong mortar dries too quickly and shrink. Please make comments below along with the name of your city and country…. Frost proofer: It protects mortar from freezing conditions. For most domestic builds such as house building, use one of these mixes: 4 parts soft sand with 1 part cement, add water and plasticiser. A wrong mix ratio or careless measuring of mortar’s ingredients can make the mortar weak. In this video we show you How To Trowel Thinset Mortar For Tiling on Bathroom shower walls. Take special care during measuring sands. Mortar provides structural integrity to a wall, floor, or other structure but is flexible enough to allow shifting without cracking. The O type mortar provides relatively low compressive strength, at only about 350 psi. I hope this post will help you to choose the best mortar mix ratio for different types of masonry works. Such as brickwork, plasterwork, tiles work, pointing work, and patchwork, etc. With a non-slumping formula to eliminate lippage, VersaBond-LFT can be applied to 3/4 in. Floors and walls are often constructed with lime, a material that lets the moisture in the building escape. Plain tiles) 3 parts soft sand*, 1 part cement and plasticiser. i.e. This type of sand should be washed before use to remove clay and salts. I’ll discuss the matter all through in this post. Job Prices makes use of cookies to help us provide a better user experience. Type M. The last of the four most common mortar types is type M. Ceramic Tile Mortar Standard mortar for ceramic tile and most stone. Before discussing this, let’s see the mix ratio for different types of mortar guided by ASTM 270, As you now know the mix ratio of different types of mortar, now let’s see…. Check Price Here, Perfect for DIYers and those on a limited budget is this 5-piece trowel set by Draper Redline. Premium, Polymer-Enriched, Large-and-Heavy-Tile and Thin-Set Mortar Large Tile & Stone Mortar is a premium, regular-setting, polymer-enriched (“modified”) large-and-heavy-tile-mortar that is ideal for installing large-format tile and stone on floors, walls and countertops. AVAILABLE AT SELECT RETAIL LOCATIONS ONLY Frost proofers can be added to the mortar but shouldn’t be relied upon. All tiles except Plain tiles – 2 parts soft sand, 1 part sharp sand and 1 part cement. The photo below shows cracked mortar – typical issues that can occur if the mix is too strong: Below you’ll find our guide to mortar mixes: The best mix will depend on the type of brick and the location of the wall. *we recommend choosing a soft sand that is fairly coarse, avoid soft sands that are at the “silty” end of the spectrum. Thinset is a mixture of cement, sand and a water-retention compound used for installing stone tiles. The first coat of render can be 2 parts plasterers sand and 2 parts sharp sand, 1 part cement and half part lime. Check Price Here. Does what it says on the tin and is often used when rendering. A pure soft sand mix shouldn’t be used when rendering. Mortar mix ratio i.e. Such as bedding roof tiles and garden projects. Traditional versions are cement-based powders that are mixed with water prior to application. It is primarily used for restoring the masonry on ancient buildings. Accelerators speed up the drying time but often leave you with little time to work with the mortar before it starts to set. This page contains a price guide for a new patio. Check Price Here, With an impressive 70 litre capacity, this electric mixer will save you time on any job, large or small. bag), slake time, pot life (time between mixing and when the mixture is no longer usable), and open time (time between spreading the adhesive and having the tile … The first coat of render should ideally be slightly stronger than the second coat. For soft older bricks already bedded onto a lime based mortar; a lime and sand mix should be used, the ratio will depend on the type of lime and how much water content it has. VersaBond-LFT 50 lbs. This page is part of our blog and is all about mortar mixes for home improvement and construction projects. Not a step you want to skip. Porcelain Tile Mortar Thin-set mortar for porcelain and stone. Ridges, valley tiles and verges should be secured with a nail or clip, either in addition to the mortar in replacement of it, this is called a dry fix method. Use 1 part cement 2 parts plaster sand, 2 parts sharp sand, and half part lime for most of the plastering work. Proper proportioning of mortar ingredients helps in having the following advantages: Uniformity of strength Uniform workability Uniform color Uniformity of proportions and yields Mainly the proportioning of the cement and sand for mortar are conducted […] For blocks below DPC, 4.5 parts soft sand, 1 part cement and 1 part lime or 4 parts soft sand and 1 part cement. Make cement and plaster mixing easy with this heavy-duty mixer paddle. So you need to be careful mixing water to the mix. This page contains a price guide for wall repointing. Making your own type S mortar is fairly straight forward. That means wet sand will have more volume compared with dry sand. tile trowel size Chart Tile trowels come in many shapes and sizes, generally starting out from a 3/16″ v-notch up to the 1/2″ square notch. Different type of masonry construction demands different mortar mix ratio. Thinset is your go-to tile mortar for most indoor and outdoor applications. Frost proofers, accelerators and colour additives can be included in the mix as required. This page contains information about the differences between a dry and wet fixing method. Plain tiles) 3 parts soft sand*, 1 part cement and plasticiser. This mortar mix ratio is very similar to type O mortar, so be sure to carefully measure your ingredients when making either type. Large Tile & Stone Mortar. Other names for thinset are dryset mortar… This is the reason we soak masonry units in water before using it. Required fields are marked *. Add 3 parts sand and 1 part masonry cement. Mostly used in outer plastering. I want to discuss a little bit about these ingredients. This mortar is useful for the above-grade, interior, and non-load-bearing walls. For tiles where only a thin bedding of mortar is required (i.e. Some roof tiles require a bedding layer of mortar that’s several inches thick and a wet/sloppy mix wouldn’t be suitable, it would slump off the tile. But avoid excessive amounts. For buildings, we use the following mixes –. The photo below shows a ridge tile that was bedded onto a very weak and totally unsuitable mortar mix. Mortar is a blend of water, cement, sand, and additives mixed into a strong but sticky adhesive. For older period homes, a lime-based should be used instead of cement. It’s typically used for brick laying and pointing. Visit Claire's corner for insightful research into topics she's passionate about. The ratio of sand to cement along with water depends on the type of concrete blocks you are installing. Mortar mix is a critically important building component that must be combined thoroughly. This mortar is suitable for below-grade applications. Your email address will not be published. For period properties we suggest seeking the advice of a specialist who understands how older buildings are designed to breathe. This sand is normally mixed with other sand to prepare the mortar and it helps to prevent cracks during the drying process. For tiles where only a thin bedding of mortar is required (i.e. For Airtec blocks above DPC, 6 parts soft sand, 1 part cement and 1 part plasticiser or 5 parts soft sand and 1 part cement. Lime can be used as an alternative to cement in some mixes or used in conjunction with it. What seems to work for small tiles no longer works. For softer or more permeable bricks, 4 parts sand, half part cement and 1 part lime can be used. The S-type mortar has high tensile-bond strength and provides at 1800 psi of compressive strength. How to Spread Thinset Evenly for Tile Walls. ft area . Unmodified mortars for tile Mortar for tile with any side > than 15" GOOD Uncoupling Membrane Mortar (576086 gray) Mortar for tile with all sides 12" or less GOOD Floor Tile Mortar (12639 gray) Wall-tile setting materials BETTER Premium Mortar (309061 1 U.S. gal, 309062 3.5 U.S. gals) Period properties are designed to breathe. You can learn more about cookies and how to control or delete them here. Steel Calculation For Beams: The Easiest Process, Column Reinforcement Calculation: A Step By Step Process, Pile Reinforcement Calculation: An Easy Process, How To Calculate Concrete Quantity For Slabs, Minimum Concrete Cover For Rebar: A Guide For Construction Professionals. This type of cement is designed to adhere well in a thin layer - typically not greater than 3/16th thick. For modern homes: 4 parts sharp sand and 1 part cement. Subscribe to our newsletter and get a free "estimating Cheat Sheet", © 2020. This page contains a guide to rendering prices in the UK. As you know mortar is a mixture of cement, sand, water, and sometimes lime. For your bricklaying project, learning to mix up the right amount of good mortar will save you time and money. If you continue to work with a mortar that has set, you’ll reduce the strength of the finished mortar. The strength of 1:6 ratio of mortar after 28 days is 3.0 N/mm2. How to Mix Mortar for Laying Tile. FEATURES AND BENEFITS • Multipurpose: Ideal for floor and wall tile 15" x 15" (38 x 38 cm) and larger, It depends on the type and location of the job you’re going to execute. Don’t forget; to meet new British Standards requirements for roof fixings, you cannot rely on mortar to secure the tiles in place. Simply combine the following ingredients: 2 parts cement, 1 part lime, and 8 to 9 parts sand. For high traffic areas, a stronger mix of 3 parts soft sand and 1 part cement can be used. Whether you’re laying bricks, pointing, renewing chimney flaunching, laying screed or rendering, we have the best mix ratios for you. Data & Cookies About Us Contacting Us Disclaimer. The most common mortar mix ratio for wall plastering is 1:6, here 1 part is cement and 6 part is sand in a workable amount of water. But due to consistency and easy application, it’s ideal for repointing and similar repair works on existing buildings. Soft sand contains fine grains of sand and mostly used for brickwork, pointing, and where thin layers of mortar are required. 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For example, a 3/8\" notch trowel will produce a 3/16th inch thick coating after the tiles are … Privacy Policy, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window). Modern buildings are constructed with thermal efficiency in mind and sealants, waterproofing materials and cement based products can be used. Once the thinset is mixed, allow 15 minutes for the thinset to absorb the water. For the first coat 4 parts sharp/plasterers and for the second coat 5 parts sharp/plasterers. Description:- cement sand calculation for tiles .in this topic we calculate cement sand calculation for tiles of 100 sq. All tiles except Plain tiles – 2 parts soft sand, 1 part sharp sand and 1 part cement. So it’s best to consult with your local engineers or visit the construction projects in your area and ask help from them to know the best mortar mix ratio for your particular job. The basic mix ratio for most of the block wall is 1 part cement and 4 part soft sand or 1 part cement and 5 part soft sand. Thinset tile mortar provides a very strong bond and is resistant to moisture and mold growth. Cracking can be avoided by reducing the amount of cement in the mixture and ensuring the mortar is wet enough. The presence of moisture content in the sand may affect the strength and bond quality of the mortar. Polymer-Enriched Thin-Set Mortar Ceramic Tile Mortar is a regular-setting, polymer-enriched (“modified”) mortar for installing tile and stone on floors and walls in thin-set applications. If you add this to the mortar mix, you’ll have a little time to work with the mortar. Because of the moisture present in the sand, it’ll cause the bulking of the sand. Concrete is usually laid in thick layers, the larger particles prevent cracking during the drying process. It may crumble after a short amount of time. Therefore, you should only use them when absolutely necessary and not as a matter of course. As a result, It produces cracks. Filed Under: Building Materials Tagged With: Masonry work, Mortar, Your email address will not be published. Such as plasticizer, waterproofers, frost proofers, accelerators, and color additives, etc. The mortar will fail to bind sufficiently. If the mortar on your trowel doesn't drip off but can be shaken off, you have the right ratio. It makes a typical mortar mix sticky and easier to point over. See Our Full Price List The Gardener’s Corner Get a Quote Calculators Budget Planning Spreadsheets Tradesman’s Day Rates & Wages Help Guides See All Of Our Polls Free Photos Visit Our Blog Login, Privacy. Because it’ll start to set too early. For roofing projects, a firmer mixture is generally required. Sand: It’s a fine aggregate that is mixed with cement and water to prepare mortar. For retaining walls or anywhere likely to be in regular contact with water, 3 parts soft sand and one part cement, 1 part lime is optional depending on the type of brick/block. Chimney maintenance costs are published on this page. While some tradespeople make the two mixes the same strength, the second coat should never be stronger than the first coat. Mortar bonds bricks and other units of masonry together and adheres tiles to an underlayment. The compressive strength of this type of mortar is at least 2500 psi. Comment document.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "ae832d5ef44bda585688464709d03fee" );document.getElementById("cb2e6c25de").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Plasticizer: To make the mortar sticky and easier to point over, the plasticizer is added to the mix. That’s why it’s not recommended to use in exposed locations. Cement mortar calculation in tile work of 100 sq.ft area and Cement calculation in tile work of 100 sq.ft area and how we calculate consumption of cement in fixing of wall tiles at wall site. If you don’t want to mix the materials yourself, you can get it delivered by a ready mix supplier. You now know about the different types of mortar and their uses. It’s commonly used with soft, permeable bricks that would likely crack if cement is used. Any colder and there is a risk of frost which will weaken the finished mortar. Such as soft sand, sharp sand, plaster sand, etc. Waterproofer: Its name says about it. detailed information about lime/sand ratios, This page contains a price guide for wall repointing, Chimney maintenance costs are published on this page, This page contains a price guide for a new patio, This page contains a guide to rendering prices in the UK, differences between a dry and wet fixing method, Roof repair prices can be located on our main price list here. Neither should it be so sloppy that it’s impossible to work with. Plasticiser is a liquid that is added to the mix to make the material easier to work with and it also slows down the curing process slightly. Most bricks and blocks are quite porous and as only a thin layer of mortar is required, a wet or “sloppy” mix is often preferable. So, you need to be careful while adding water to the mortar mix. *we recommend choosing a soft sand that is fairly coarse, avoid … 1 part soft sand, 2 parts sharp sand, 1 cement, half part lime is optional. Sometimes we think that adding more cement to the mix will make the mortar strong. Ceramic tile offers more to home spaces than classic beauty. The tile was not secured in place and the “mortar” could be crushed into small particles by simply squeezing it in my hand: Too strong a mix, i.e made with too much cement and your mortar may dry too quickly, shrink and crack. The type of sand and cement mixture needed will dictate the exact ratio. As outlined on diydata.com, an older method of mixing mortar included portland cement, hydrated lime … Chimney flaunching will receive a lot of rainfall so the mix should be strong, this prevents it washing out. It’s often used in situations where a slightly thicker layer of mortar is required – chimney flaunching, bedding roof tiles and many garden projects will require sharp sand. Masonry units absorb some amount of water from the mortar and thus reduces the water-cement ratio of the mortar. Mortar is the bonding material between bricks, concrete block, stone, and many other masonry materials.It is made from Portland cement, lime, sand, and water in varying ratios. Lime: It can be used in conjunction with cement. Sharp sand is more coarse than soft sand. So that you can better understand the mortar mix ratio. This varies according to the needs of the task: above ground is 5:1, below ground is 3:1 and internal walls is 8:1. For locations in the east and south of the country or any sheltered location that experiences less windswept rain, a slightly weaker mix can be used. This type of sand is used in the situation where thick layers of mortar are required. It is a bonding material. You should at least know basic things like the mortar mix ratio or amount of water (most want somewhere around 6 quarts of water per 50lb. Suitable for most electric drills. Using the same mortar mix ratio for all types of masonry work will hamper the quality of the construction. Such as foundations, retaining walls, and driveways. Concrete is used in many places around the home, for laying a firm sub-floor or a base for paving, whilst Mortar is the most important bit in any wall.. The mortar mix ratio for bricklaying mostly depends on the size and location of the brick wall and the type of bricks. For chimney repointing to a modern home, the best mix will depend on how exposed the chimney is and it’s location. Because roof tiles are located in an exposed location that’s likely to experience rainfall, a strong mix should be used. Waterproofer is different to plasticiser. Do You Consent to Our Data and Cookie Policy? It shouldn’t also be used in areas subjected to high winds. It has the highest amount of portland cement and is used in heavy loads and below-grade construction. Such as the location of applications, type of masonry works, quality of masonry blocks and ingredients of mortar, etc. Then which proportion should you use for a particular type of masonry construction? It is also heatproof, so it won't lose its grip in hot environments. Plasticiser can be used in the second coat. In order for the mortar to bond properly it also has to be mixed properly. Roof repair prices can be located on our main price list here. Also called "thin set" this is how to mix it. For wall: A good solid surface is recommended to reduce water being absorbed by the mortar mix. If you don’t, the cement in the screed will push moisture towards the walls where the soft bricks and plaster will absorb the water. Soft sand is also known as building sand and contains fine grains of sand and is used for bricklaying, pointing and where thin layers of mortar are required. Concrete is a mixture of aggregates such as crushed rock, gravel and sand that is mixed with cement and water. So the mortar mix ratio should be in such a way that ensures the mortar is wet enough till the job is done. Cement: As you are a construction professional you already know about this. Check Price Here, Perfect for mixing small amounts of cement or plaster in confined spaces, less mess and easy storage. How to Mix Mortar. For pointing use 4 parts soft sand and 1 part cement. Once you've set your tile, your tile will be … This large-and-heavy-tile mortar (formerly known as “medium-bed mortar”) is designed to bond and support large tile over a diverse range of substrates. This is the perfect option for large projects. It is used in all kinds of masonry, such as for holding brick, stone, and even tile together. It’s washed to remove salts and clay residue that could cause efflorescence (salting). Tile set by the thinset method is adhered to the substrate with a thin layer of \"thinset\" cement. If you want to add color in a mortar you can add this. The second coat must be slightly weaker than the first, so 3 parts plasterers sand, 2 parts sharp sand, 1 part cement and half lime. But strong mortar can also hamper the quality of the job.