The small flowers lack petals and sepals and appear in crowded clusters prior to leaf out. Mary Sabine, Species at Risk Biologist, New Brunswick Department of Energy and Resource Development, Fredericton NB. Kurmis, V, S.L. Muirhead, J.R., B. Leung, C. Overdijk, D.W. Kelly, K. Nandakumar, K.R. In: 19th Australasian Weeds Conference - Science, Community and Food Security: the Weed Challenge. Herms, and R.P. 2013. [Accessed May 2017]. [received from Chris Friesen, MCDC Coordinator, in May 2016]. (2008). Pittsburgh PE. Identification, transmission, and partial characterization of a previously undescribed flexivirus causing a mosaic disease of ash (Fraxinus spp.) 2015. ATK Assessment Report on Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra) in Canada. Herms, S. Matthews, M. Peters, A. Smith, D.M. Disturbance includes forestry, infrastructure, mines, reservoirs, agriculture, and human settlement. Science of the Total Environment. Tech. 2016. Some use of the wood by the forest industry, but most cutting would be incidental harvest by industrial forestry operations that are primarily targeting co-occurring species. Beasley, R.R., and P.M. Pijut. 2012. obs. 2012. Centre for Wood Anatomy Research. 2003. Forest Inventory and Analysis 2010 to 2015 survey plot data. Ecological impacts of the emerald ash borer. English common name: Black Ash; occasionally also Basket Ash, Brown Ash, Swamp Ash, Hoop Ash, Water Ash, American Black Ash, Canadian Ash, Splinter Ash Canadensys. Flooded Jellyskin is mainly found in calcareous forested vernal ponds fringed by flood-tolerant trees. Biota of North America Program (BONAP). Sinclair. Speck, F.G., and R.W. Ethnobotany of the Ojibwe Indians. 1999. Fraxinus nigra. Testing two aerial survey techniques on deer in fenced enclosures: visual double-counts and thermal infrared sensing. 47(1-4):29-37. This was completed by the recovery team in 2015 (Hurlburt 2015). Kartesz, J.T. 2011. Black Ash readily sprouts from adventitious buds on root crowns, roots and stumps (Erdmann et al. * See Definitions and Abbreviations on COSEWIC website and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (Feb 2014) for more information on this term. Literature references to “vegetative reproduction” in Black Ash refer to re-sprouting from cut or broken stumps or from the root collar. Establishment of a Global Warming Bio-Monitoring Program in the Boreal Forest of Eastern Manitoba: Year I. Manitoba Model Forest Report 04-5-06. Webb, and R.P. 2007). angustifolia): have we found the silver bullet?. In: Proceedings of the American Water Resource Association Summer Specialty Conference. 1951. Environment Canada, Ottawa. AC CDC (Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre). Gucker, C.L. Forest Health Monitoring: 2008 National Technical Report. In Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Vermont, Massachusetts and New Hampshire, Black Ash is not ranked (SNR). Subpopulations in the central part of the distribution have been devastated by Emerald Ash Borer, an invasive beetle. 2000 to 2016), and for this report a few unverifiable occurrences reported from atypical habitats and regions for Black Ash have been presumed to represent European Ash. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12181. COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada). Roberts, W. 2005. North Central IPM Center Bulletin. Although it is presently ranked as nationally Secure (N4), predicted decline of Black Ash in Canada will undoubtedly impact the Canadian Sphinx population and possibly its range. Under current climate conditions, locations in these areas are defined based on threats at the scale of a forestry cut-block or small land parcel, resulting in a high number of locations across the northern margin of Black Ash range. Poland. 25:189-227. Koop. Black Ash seeds exhibit deep physiological dormancy and require a process of natural stratification and after-ripening involving exposure to moisture and both high and low temperatures (details given under Physiology and Adaptability). Ecological Monographs. Ostry, R.C. 2012. Rare Plant Botanist, Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort KY. Liu, H.P., L.S. Clifford, and W. Cranshaw. [accessed January 2017]. Sap flow of Black Ash in wetland forests of northern Minnesota, USA: hydrologic implications of tree mortality due to emerald ash borer. Range map for Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra) PLEASE NOTE: A coloured Province or State means this species occurs somewhere in that Province/State. [accessed December 2016], NatureServe. Janssen, C.R. 1932. Climate change can influence forest disturbance by insects and pathogens through: 1) direct effects on the development, survival and dispersal of pathogens and herbivores, 2) changes in tree physiology that can influence resistance to pathogens and herbivores and 3) indirect effects from changes in the abundance of insect vectors of tree pathogens (Ayres and Lombardero 2000; Sturrock et al. January 11 to 14, 2011. pp. There are few quantitative assessments of ash dieback, but declines can be significant. Journal of Natural History. Fire and succession in the conifer forests of northern North America. (presently not an active link), Beasley, R.R., and P.M. Pijut. 2017), thereby maintaining suitable site conditions for associated tree, shrub and herbaceous species less tolerant to flooding (Lenhart et al. Wetlands 37: 787–799. For other uses, only parts of the tree are used. Currently, there are no usable Black Ash trees at Akwesasne. Palik, B.J., M.E. In Red Ash, mean samara floatation time under laboratory conditions was two days, and storage in water for 15 days significantly increased subsequent germination (Schmeidel and Tackenberg 2013). Although they undergo relatively rapid early growth (Carmean 1978), seedlings remain poor competitors and must overcome competition from other understory vegetation in order to successfully establish. May 2016. 1959. Historically, at least in Nova Scotia, decline of species has been attributed to harvest of saplings for barrel staves (Hill-Forde 2004) http://www.americanindian.si.edu/environment/pdf/transcripts/01_02_Akwesasne_Mohawk_People.pdf. Blaney), Botanist (D.M. Kashian, D.M., and J.A. Oikos. Under the right conditions they can be quickly blown across open ice of lakes and rivers. Queen’s Printer for Ontario, Toronto ON. Cherokee Plants an early Cherokee ethnobotanical note. Black Ash is threatened by the introduced Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), an Asian wood-boring beetle that reached southwestern Ontario in 1992 and has since spread to Canadian sites up to 1,100 km northwest and 1,300 km northeast. Rowlinson, D. 2017. Current horticultural and ecological/cultural restoration plantings by First Nations (i.e. Van Driesche (Ed.). Black Ash generally has fairly good to good regeneration potential, but post-harvest use of herbicides to reduce broad-leaved regeneration would limit the species where it is practiced (~0.05% of Black Ash's Canadian range annually, no more than 10% impacts over three generations). We do make a small profit on each item sold. Bulletin of the Public Museum of Milwaukee. Specimen database. The mortality is escalating and loss of a high proportion of the 8.7 billion ash trees in the United States (Flowers et al. MacLean. Report presented to Nova Forest Alliance, Nova Scotia. 88(47):504-504. Biological Invasions. 2015). Dayton, P.K. Changes in landscape composition and stand structure from 1945–2002 on an industrial forest in New Brunswick, Canada. Its wood is strongly ring-porous and highly pliable, making it ideal for basketry, barrel hoops, chair seats, snowshoe frames and canoe ribs (Benedict 2001; Benedict and Frelich 2008). University of Minnesota, Twin Cities. The State of Canada’s Forests: Annual Report 2014 (PDF). Black Ash wood is highly flexible and readily separates into thin strips, making it useful in applications requiring bending. comm. This value may greatly underestimate actual usage given that Thompson and Pitt (2011) report an annual treatment of roughly 700 km2 in Ontario alone. comm. 2000. Kirkpatrick, B.C. 5 pp. The basal sprouts grew much faster than seedlings and in a mast year 27% of large sprouts produced seed when most or all were less than 10 years old. Great Lakes Forestry Research Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Sault Ste. 2017. Dispersal versus climate: Expansion of Fagus and Tsuga into the Upper Great Lakes region. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Technical Report 48. Sault Ste. Ayres, M.P., and M.J. Lombardero. 255:3489-3493. Bolton, J.W. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-240. Edmonton AB. 2017. 44(2):287-299. 1975. In: Proceedings of the Midwest Emerald Ash Borer Symposium, Novi MI. For example, if temperature zones shifted northward by 1°C to 4°C, that would leave 85.99% to 99.99% of Canadian Black Ash susceptible to EAB (Table 2; susceptibility values of -31°C and -34°C). Erdmann et al. March 5, 2018. Jeff Harris, District Forester, Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Savanna IL. comm. 2017. Peterson, C.E., 1989. Extensive documentation of Black Ash habitat and associated species and communities are found in Erdmann et al. 2008. Black Ash currently has a global status rank of G5 (Secure). Plant Disease. Bernards, and B.J. In: Fire Effects Information System. Smitley, and B. Cregg. Forest Pathology. [accessed December 2016]. obs. The pathogenesis described here applies mainly to observed effects on White Ash. Potvin, F., and L. Breton. Wallander, E. 2008. Beltsville, MD. 1984. 25:353-369. October 15 to 56, 2014. p. 38. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Textbook of Dendrology: covering the important forest trees of the United States and Canada 5th Ed. 1999 to 2017; Oldham pers. A homopteran insect that is likely Cottony Ash Psyllid (definite identification of the immature specimen not possible) was collected from curled Black Ash leaves on the Taxis River in central New Brunswick in 2017 (Blaney and Mazerolle pers. Fraxinus nigra, North American Plant Atlas. Black Ash stand composition and structure in Carlton County, Minnesota. pp. Potential for evolutionary responses to climate change – evidence from tree populations. 1997. McCullough. Schwartz. 1933. Email correspondence with C.S. Labrecque, J., pers. [received from Mary Sabine, Species at Risk Biologist, in May 2016], NBM (New Brunswick Museum). [accessed May 2016]. Forming a rough triangle, the species’ range extends from the head of St. George’s Bay in the south to Bonne Bay in the north and Springdale in the northeast. He concludes that the seed-producing ability of small trees and basal sprouts and persistence of some larger individuals will allow Red Ash to remain an important component of forests at his study sites, albeit at a smaller stature and lower density than under pre-EAB conditions. comm. Biological Invasions. 41 pp. Exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera:Buprestidae), and its natural enemies in China. [accessed January 2017]. 2015. Other tree species with comparable flood tolerance may be limited in some areas, thus limiting canopy replacement. Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) distribution information is not publicly available from most communities within the species’ distribution (COSEWIC ATK Subcommittee 2015). Distribution des principales espèces vasculaires. and D. Lachance (Eds). [accessed February 2017]. Establishment and abundance of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Michigan: potential for success in classical biocontrol of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Areas with Black Ash that might be affected by road and railway development and maintenance are trivial in relation to the national range. 25:1865-1875. New England Wild Flower Society`s online plant identification resource. Springer-Verlag, NY. Aboriginal names: 2017. Black Ash is a shallow-rooted tree, particularly when in hydric soils susceptible to flooding, making it especially prone to windthrow (Erdmann et al. May 2016. Although about 80.2% of Nova Scotia’s forest is less than 80 years old (586 of 2959 permanent sample plots in 2011 to 2015; NS DNR 2017), most of which would have regenerated from land cut over since 1958, there is no indication from elsewhere in the range of Black Ash that forestry alone would be likely to cause major population declines and range contraction (see Threats – Forestry). The biology and phenology of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis. Shrewsbury: FSC Publications. 1999 to 2017). Densmore, F. 1974. The proportion of Black Ash within the ash killed thus far is likely fairly low, as White Ash and Red Ash are considerably more numerous than Black Ash within the regions most affected to this point (Blaney pers. The 151,434 m3 estimated total volume (roughly 285,000 trees, vastly greater than would be present today) would thus represent 29.31 m3 of observed volume, or about 55 mature trees (0.13 m average diameter x 10 m log length). The impact of Moose (Alces alces andersoni) on forest regeneration following a severe spruce budworm outbreak in the Cape Breton Highlands, Nova Scotia, Canada. Hunt, and D. Clements. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Blue Ash Fraxinus quadrangulata in Canada. État de la forêt publique du Québec et de son aménagement durable – Bilan 2008 to 2013. Professor, Centre for Northern Studies, Centre for Forest Research, Université Laval, Quebec QC. Redfern and Shirley 2002) and thus could have been introduced in Canada, but no direct comment on whether it is native to North America could be found. Proceedings of the Colloquium on Conservation Problems in Antarctica. 2011; Pautasso et al. 1996). A Strategy for Growing Black Ash in the Maritime Provinces. pp. Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in US communities, 2009–2019. Sork, V., and P. Smouse. 40(8):250‐259. Rep. No. Artificial flooding has been and continues to be a significant influence on Aboriginal traditional uses of Black Ash, because most Aboriginal communities are located at or near waterways and historically the most readily accessible and transportable stands of Black Ash would have been found along waterways (Ballard pers. For enquiries, contact us. Black Ash. Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment. Monique Wester, Ecologist, Ontario Forest Research Institute, Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Sault Ste. 16 pp. In:Studies of Maple Blight. These are, however, non-significant on the national scale. 374-405. 2014. Influence of moose browsing on successional forest growth on black spruce sites in Newfoundland. Digital database, Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre, Sackville NB. Pierre Martineau, Botanist and retired biology professor (Cégep de l’Abitibi-Témiscamingue), specialist in the flora of Quebec’s Clay Belt, Rouyn-Noranda QC. It is not especially fire tolerant but does sprout vigorously from base, and also good dispersal from adjacent areas post-fire. Indigenous peoples in Canada and the United States have used the species for centuries in the production of baskets, snowshoe framing and canoe ribs. New Haven CT. [accessed February 2017]. APG (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group). Handfield, L. 2011. Permanent sample plot data suggests almost no recruitment into reproductive sizes. comm. (2000) also showed that in clearcut forested wetlands in Quebec, Black Ash can be replaced by pioneer hardwood species such as Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides) and White Birch (Betula papyrifera). Reason for designation: Approximately 51% of the global range of this tree is found in Canada. Loss of Black Ash could also have indirect ecological consequences, as herbivore populations formerly dependent on ash as a primary food source move to other available species. 200 pp. Emerald ash borer dispersal – a release and recapture study. June 22, 2017. Journal of Vegetation Science. Jim Vanderhorst, Vegetation Ecologist, Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins WV. Thompson, I.D., and W.J. Julien, F. 2013. Morgantown, WV. Recruitment limited by fire (seedlings not fire resistant) (Batzer and Baldwin 2012) "Black ash is easily damaged by fire and can be killed or top-killed by severe fire but it probably sprouts from the root crown following such damage. Email communication by Jessica Humber to Neil Jones (COSEWIC Scientific Project Officer & Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge Coordinator), provided to Sean Blaney. All occurrences within the Canadian Food Inspection Agency’s Regulated Zone for Emerald Ash Borer (CFIA 2017; Figure 11), plus Quebec City and Edmundston, New Brunswick (added to the regulated zone later in 2017 and 2018 because of discoveries of Emerald Ash Borer; CFIA 2017; 2018) could be considered a single location because they are either already being impacted by Emerald Ash Borer or are at a very high level of threat from Emerald Ash Borer impacts within the next decade, based on known potential natural expansion rates of 20 km per year (Prasad et al. Gormanson, M.G. 2008. This is not a major factor across the Canadian range. 2013. Montigny, M.K., and D.A. Black ash occurs in many northeastern U.S. states and in several of Canada's eastern provinces. Climate‐induced forest dieback as an emergent global phenomenon. Kim. Climate change-induced range shifts were also studied by Morin et al. Large numbers of Black Ash fruits can remain on trees and continue to disperse into early winter (Curtis 1959; Blaney and Mazerolle pers. 3 pp. Scope is at the low end of the given 1-10% range. obs. Ontario Parks has occurrence data from 97 sites (McCaul pers. This estimates the Quebec population at 71,321,192; Ontario: Timber volume data (OMNRF, from Watkins pers. 2015) and in saplings (Duan et al. obs. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions, 5th Ed. Assessment of Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra) decline in Minnesota. Donna Hurlburt holds a B.Sc. Kostichka, and J.E. Observations in Terra Nova National Park show that Moose can almost completely remove hardwoods such as Red Maple (Acer rubrum) and mountain ash (Sorbus americana and S. decora) from forest understories and significantly curtail regeneration (McLaren et al. Queloz, V., C.R. ) and perhaps as many as 2 billion by 2015 (Wagner and Todd 2015). The most significant research that indicates some potential for ash persistence is outlined below. Davidson, W.C. 2015. No Canadian Black Ash occurrences are more than 1,000 km from currently affected areas. It is also fire-sensitive and may be top-killed by even moderate-severity fires (Heinselman 1981; Grimm 1984). Steve Young, Chief Botanist, New York Natural Heritage Program, Albany NY. obs. OMNR Landowner Resource Centre, Manotick ON. trees infested by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis). A reliable and easy to maintain option. Sutherland, E.K., B.J. 2006. The same study identifies another 30 arthropods that are only associated with one or two host species in addition to ash. 1-33. 2014), at diameters of 2.5 cm and above (McCullough et al. Potential Effects of Foundation Species Loss on Wetland Communities: A Case Study of Black Ash Wetlands Threatened by Emerald Ash Borer. 2014, 2018; Knight et al. Cottony Psyllids on Ash. Although not discussed in the paper, his field sites were in or adjacent to counties that received the first introductions of the EAB parasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi for biological control in 2007 (Duan et al. For sale due to downsizing. The wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate ash herbivores described under Interspecific Interactions is also likely limiting for Black Ash to some degree. 2009. NS DNR (Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources). The disease organism occurs in Europe (i.e. Percy, D.M. Executive Director and Senior Scientist (C.S. [accessed June 2016]. 2001. (2008), who employed models incorporating phenology, frost injury, survival, reproductive success and dispersal potential, and predicted much more severe effects for Black Ash than Iverson and Prasad (2002). Levy, S. 2006. Since 1965, 23 trees above 10 cm diameter at breast height have been recorded in eight plots, and a minimum of 520 saplings (under 10 cm diameter at breast height) have been recorded in 39 plots. Process‐based modeling of species' distributions: what limits temperate tree species' range boundaries?. Not separable from climate change. There are no specific reports of Black Ash movement from the United States into Canada. Later studies in Michigan, some in connection with biological control initiatives, observed persistence of small trees and saplings as well as seed production (e.g., Duan et al. populations in areas long infested by Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis). 36:264-70. 1971. American Forests. 1998. 2012. 9(5):250. 121:1749-1760. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.20305.x. Knight, C.P. Canadian Forest Service, Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Ontario. 2017). A reminder that our dues year is from January to December, and 2021 dues are being accepted. Kashian, D.M., 2016. Burned sites also may be re-colonized through the wind-dispersed seed." Smith, G., and J.E. USDA Forest Service. Fraxinus sambucifolia Lam. These properties are in general agreement with the findings of low genetic differentiation among populations found by Simpson et al. Bauer, B.A. Wilson, R. pers. Any regrowth under lines would not reach reproductive size. It is not known if Ash Rust is causing meaningful decline in the Canadian range, and it has not been observed to be significantly contributing to the low vigour observed in southeastern New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island subpopulations (Blaney and Mazerolle pers. Marie ON. arundinaca) (Palik et al. comm. Pap. 62 pp. North Dakota State University Crop & Pest Report 8:1. Powell, G., and T. Beardmore. 250:114-129. US Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin FHTET-2014-09. 2010. Doi: 10.1139/X08-171. 2007. Black Ash is the most northern species of ash. Traditional Black Ash basketry is an important historical and contemporary cultural practice for First Nations living within the range of the species (see Special Significance). Symptoms develop within three years after phytoplasmas are detected in the phloem (Pokorny and Sinclair 1994). Although Black Ash is a known host of Ash Yellows, the extent to which it can be affected by the disease is not well understood. Lyons, M.A. Mi'kmaq Maliseet Nations News, Truro, NS. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. pp. The small areas involved and uncommon status of Black Ash in Newfoundland and Anticosti Island mean that any declines caused by introduced deer and Moose are unlikely to be significant in relation to the total Canadian population. pp. 125: 237–248. Gates, F.C. Climatic perturbation as a general mechanism of forest dieback. Conclusive evidence of the cause of Black Ash decline and poor health in Nova Scotia and adjacent areas of New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island is lacking. 2017. Regeneration of Plants from Fraxinus nigra Marsh. Toward an understanding of community resilience and the potential effects of enrichments to the benthos at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Non-timber forest products - Some targeted harvesting of species for firewood and for basketry, veneers, trims, often for Aboriginal purposes (George No Date). 2017). Larry Watkins, Forest Analyst, Forest Analysis and Modeling Unit, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Sault Ste. Ostry, R.C. Gottschalk (Eds.). Williams, O. Kulinich, and Y.I. Herrick, J.W. Effects of climate on emerald ash borer mortality and the potential for ash survival in North America. [received from Stephen Clayden, herbarium curator, in May 2016], NLDEC (Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Environment and Conservation). Unpublished data, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Forestry Division, Truro, NS. Occupied habitats are often seasonally flooded (Erdmann et al. What additional limiting factors are relevant? Gilmore, M.R. Wetland loss in the Mixedwood Plains since 2002 could not be calculated in Ducks Unlimited (2010), but between 1982 and 2002 it was estimated at 3.5% loss of wetlands or 0.175% per year (0.016% of the Canadian range of Black Ash per year). Predicting forest dieback in Maine, USA: a simple model based on soil frost and drought. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB. 2005; Maw et al. Manion, P.D. 04:437-443. Eastern Manitoba to the Atlantic provinces . Dwayne Sabine, Biologist, New Brunswick Department of Energy and Resource Development, Fredericton NB. 2011). Klooster, W.S., K.J.K. Loo, J., and N. Ives. Many ecosystems in which Black Ash is a major component have already been impoverished by the decline of American Elm (Ulmus americana) due to the introduced fungus responsible for Dutch Elm Disease (Brasier 1991). Ecological Economics. March 2007. Van Driesche. Native Plants Journal. 2007). MFFPQ (Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs Québec). Areas with Black Ash that might be affected by utility and service lines are trivial in relation to the national range. Interspecific patterns of ash decline and mortality in a common garden. Feedback on this page. USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. McCullough, and J. Cardina, 2011. 22(5):1179-1243. Forest Analyst, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Sault Ste. 1993. Madison WI. 2017). Drought was considered but not scored. 2017. Psyllid Attack on North Dakota Black Ash Resource (PDF). Email correspondence with D.M. comm. Black Ash is susceptible in areas of new beaver dams where land may be flooded. comm. Statistics Canada. In Manitoba, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, where Black Ash is tracked as a naturally uncommon to rare species, occurrence data have been more systematically compiled and represent a greater proportion of actual occurrences. Martin, A.C., H.S. Gavin, D.G., and D.R. CEPI (Collaborative Environmental Planning Initiative). Christopher Frye, State Botanist, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wye Mills MD. In: Parker, B.C. Zogg, G.P., and V.B. Maps generated from Kartesz, J.T. and mice (Peromyscus and other genera), in addition to beaver and Porcupine (Erethizon dorsatus), will feed on ash samaras, as do many birds including Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus), Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), Wood Duck (Aix sponsa) and songbirds including Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), chickadees (Poecile atricapillus, P. carolinensis), Purple Finch (Haemorhous purpureus) and Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator) (Martin et al. Personal observations on the general biology of Black Ash and on the species’ abundance and distribution in Ontario and the Maritimes provinces. 2007; Burr and McCullough 2014; Klooster et al. If that level of warming equated to a corresponding increase in minimum annual temperatures, there would be very little Black Ash with any climatic protection from EAB. Blaney and D.M. Permanent sample plot data, for plots containing Black Ash (1965-present), and for current age classes of all plots (2013 to 2016). Palik, B.J., M.E. French common name: Frêne noir; occasionally also Frêne gras comm. In Nova Scotia, a number of recent records have been reported through Environmental Assessment processes associated with road expansion in Nova Scotia. 2000. Hawboldt, L.S., and R.M. Landscape evolution, peatland types and the environment in the Lake Agassiz Peatlands Natural Area, Minnesota. The Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, provides full administrative and financial support to the COSEWIC Secretariat. Mazerolle and C.S. Davies (Jr.). 2018) occur over much of the Manitoba range, but this would still represent well below 1% of the Canadian total. Peters, J.M. IUCN threats calculation of Black Ash, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Areas currently regulated for Emerald Ash Borer (PDF), COSEWIC Guidelines on Manipulated Populations. 2013), meaning that if it were introduced, effects could be severe. Rangemaster Scoria Ash Black Igneous Granite Single Bowl Sink with Reversible Drainer & Waste Kit - 1000 x 500mm Rangemaster is a name that is synonymous with high quality kitchen sinks at an affordable price, and the Scoria range follows that ethos to the letter. Moose damage to balsam fir-white birch forests in central Newfoundland. Master's Thesis, Department of Plant Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT. Diamond, A.K., and M.R. Smith, H.H. Google Patents. 2013 Cottony Ash Psyllid (Psyllopsis discrepans). Lee. Reclassification of the Butternut canker fungus, Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum, into the genus Ophiognomonia. 23 pp. Hosie, R.C. 33. 2007. NCBI (National Centre for Biotechnology Information). Lewis. Extreme minimum temperature zones. 69(3):569-578. 2012. APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service). Modelling local and long‐distance dispersal of invasive emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera) in North America. Only 1 to 20% of Black Ash trees are typically suitable for basket making (Benedict and Frelich 2008; Diamond 2009). Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service – Atlantic Forestry Centre, Fredericton, NB and the Confederacy of Mainland Mi’kmaq, Millbrook, NS. Shading by other species limits recruitment; i.e., probably can tolerate some surrounding harvest. Browsing by White tailed deer may be significant in some areas within the southern part of the range as is the case with Moose in northern Cape Breton. 2013. (1985) found that drought was only a factor in half of all severe dieback years in New York from 1942 to 1980. Mazerolle, concerning forest inventory data in Nova Scotia. Mazerolle, concerning the impact of moose browsing on Black Ash in Gros Morne National Park, NL. xii + 48 pp. and B.H. Some small-scale dams likely. 155(1):205-222. It is caused by the anamorph of the non-native ascomycete Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus(anamorph name Chalara fraxinea). USDA-APHIS, PPQ New Pest Advisory Group. Glyphosate: discovery, development, applications, and properties. It was inadvertently introduced to the Detroit, Michigan – Windsor, Ontario area in the 1990s, where it was first recognized in both Canada and the U.S.A. in 2002 (Haack et al. Saranac, NY. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. (2006) found documented seed dispersal up to 1.4 km in European Ash and estimated that seed dispersal was up to six times more effective than pollen dispersal in maintaining genetic connectivity among remnant stands. John Maunder, Curator emeritus of Natural History, The Rooms Provincial Museum, Saint John’s NL. In areas of interest to the Mi'kmaq, EAs are required to identify the location of Black Ash and to often provide mitigation. Seeds exhibit deep physiological dormancy, with embryos that are immature when the seed is shed. Wagner, and J.S. Quercus velutina, the black oak, is a species of oak in the red oak group (Quercus sect. 2013). Biological Conservation. Lenhart, K.N. 2016. Lavallée, R. pers. 2015. 1891, The Midewiwin or 'Grand Medicine Society' of the Ojibwa, SI-BAE Annual Report #7. 100(6):630-632. 2007. We can roughly estimate the IAO using the polygons forming the mapped Canadian range in Figure 3. Blaney, concerning the status of Black Ash in Kentucky. (2018) summarized the strong positive trends in EAB biocontrol on Green Ash and White Ash yet indicated that more time is needed to determine the effect of EAB biocontrol on ash health and regeneration. Unama'ki Institute of Natural Resources, Eskasoni, Nova Scotia. IPCC (2014) climate predictions for 2100, including error bars, range between about 1°C and 4°C above current temperatures. Hurley. 2014. Kowalski, T., and O. Holdenrieder. 2014 Emerald Ash Borer National Research and Technology Development Meeting. Long, K.I. Distances among Canadian occurrences are generally less than 100 km, except for Newfoundland occurrences that are at least 230 km from Cape Breton occurrences (Figure 3). Dimensions 1092 x 638 DOI 10.1007/s10980-005-2378-9. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Since 1965, Nova Scotia’s permanent sample plots have been revisited on a five year rotation, allowing tracking of individual trees and some indication of population trends. Kowalski T. 2006. 2013). 9:271-276. (2012) document evidence of Black Ash suppression by deer browsing in Virginia, and White (2012) notes severe reduction in recruitment in Minnesota associated with deer browsing. Lobatae), native and widespread in eastern and central North America.It is found in all the coastal states from Maine to Texas, inland as far as Michigan, Ontario, Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and eastern Texas. Thompson, D.G., and D. Pitt. Harper. Chalara fraxinea sp. A non-native disease or insect is a plausible cause given that no native pathogens are known to substantially influence populations (see Limiting Factors). Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 2017. Global ForestWatch Canada, 2012, Year of Sustainable Energy for All #2. Under a plausible worst case scenario in which warming removed all climatic protection from EAB (see Threats – Emerald Ash Borer - Climatic limitation of EAB expansion northward), all occurrences could be considered to represent as few as two occurrences as outlined below. 2013. Bauer, R.G. 29:1505-1516. Forest health monitoring evaluation: brown ash (Fraxinus nigra) in Maine. Knight, K.J.K. In Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick, which contain the species’ core Canadian range, collective annual forest area harvested has averaged 334,000 ha in recent years (Natural Resources Canada 2013, 2014, 2015), which represents roughly 0.36% of Black Ash’s extent of occurrence, equating to 21.6% over 60 years (one generation); calculations beyond 60 years are complicated by second harvests of the same areas. Plant Ecology. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Agricultural Experiment Station. 1972. Blaney, concerning the distribution, abundance and status of Black Ash in Ontario and Quebec. 1993. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. Forestry 86: 515–522, doi:10.1093/forestry/cpt031. Forest Ecology and Management. It is frequent on finer alluvial and peat and muck soils but is also documented on clayey loam, fine sands underlain by sandy till, and sands and loams underlain by lake-washed clayey till (as summarized in Gucker 2005). 94(5):636. Great Lakes Entomologist. 91(3):291-298. Venette, R.C., and M. Abrahamson. areas flooded by large dams would not have been considered wetland loss, classification of bottomland soils was uneven across the study area, some Great Lakes shoreline wetlands were not included in the study; Ducks Unlimited 2010); and 5) Habitat conversion has continued since 2002. 1987. Boland. 2017. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 52:7-16. Marie ON. [accessed January 2017]. Schmitt, J. comm. 273:25-49. Lowe and R.A. Ennos. 2014. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 1987). Ahlgren, C.E. Hartzler, R. Long, and J. Almendinger. Resource Description and Analysis: Gros Morne National Park. In Nova Scotia, Black Ash was listed under the Nova Scotia Endangered Species Act as Threatened in 2013, but it has no provincial or state level legal status in other jurisdictions. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. is within zones in which EAB-experienced minimum temperatures average warmer than the most widely cited minimum survivable temperature of -30°C; Table 2); even if the minimum EAB-experienced survivable temperature was only -26°C, that would still leave 50.39% of the Canadian population of Black Ash potentially susceptible to EAB (Table 2). Livingston, W.H., and A.S. White. 1957. Ecological Monographs. [received from Monique Wester, Ecologist, Ontario Forest Research Institute, in February 2017], OMNR (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources). An undescribed virus causing mosaic symptoms in Minnesota ash populations was identified by Machado-Caballero et al. Manager, National Tree Seed Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Fredericton NB. 40:45-59. Forest Service publication FHTET 2007–04. 2003. Mich. Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Le guide des papillons du Québec. aagimaatig/ aagimaak/ aasaakamig/ aagamaatig (oog-plural; Ojibwe) (Densmore 1974; Meeker et al. Related Searches. Although, it has caused a modest overall decline in known numbers of ash in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba to date, projections indicate that mortality rates will be greater than 90%, and ~73% of the Canadian population is likely to be affected within one generation (60 years) under current climate conditions.